Angela Dorothea Merkel was born July 17, 1954 is the current Chancellor of Germany. Merkel, elected to Parliament from the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, was chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from April 10, 2000, and chairman of the CDU / CSU (Christian Social Union) parliamentary coalition from 2002 to 2005.
From 2005 to 2009 she led a grand coalition with the Christian Social Union (CSU), its Bavarian sister party, the Social-Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), formed after the federal elections of 2005 of 22 November 2005. In the elections held on 27 September 2009, her party, the HDZ won the largest share of votes and formed a coalition government with the CSU and the Free Democratic Party (FDP). Her Government was sworn in on Oct. 28, 2009.
In 2007, Angela Merkel was also President of the European Council and chairman of G8. It plays a central role in the negotiations on the Lisbon Treaty and the Berlin Declaration. In domestic policy, health care reform and problems concerning future energy development so far has been the main issues of its powers.
Merkel is the first female chancellor of Germany. In 2007 she became the second woman to chair G8, after Margaret Thatcher.
Chancellor Merkel is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, the International Network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers, whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of vital importance to women, and equitable development.
In 2008 Merkel received the Charlemagne Prize “for her work on reforming the European Union. Award was presented by Nicolas Sarkozy.
Angela Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in Hamburg July 17, 1954, as the daughter of Horst Kasner (b. August 6, 1926 in Berlin-Pankow), a Lutheran pastor and his wife, Herlind (b. July 8, 1928 in Danzig, as Herlind Jentzsch), Lecturer English and Latin. Her mother is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Her grandmother and grandfather from mother, one of them Masurian lived in Elbing in East Prussia. Merkel said that she was one-quarter of the Polish in an interview with Der Spiegel in 2000. She has a brother, Mark (born July 7, 1957), and a sister, Irene (b. 19 August 1964).
Merkel’s father studied theology in Heidelberg (then West Germany), and then, in Hamburg. In 1954, her father was a pastor in the church Quitzow (near Perleberg in Brandenburg), which was then in communist East Germany, and the family moved to Templin. Thus, Merkel grew up in a rural area 80 km (50 miles) north of Berlin. Gerd Langguth, a former senior member of Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union, the book says that the family’s ability to move freely from East to West Germany during the following years, as well as having had two cars, leads to the conclusion that Merkel’s father was an “active “Relations with the communist regime, since such freedom and privileges for Christians pastor and his family would have been otherwise impossible in East Germany.
Like the majority of pupils, Merkel was a member of the official, under the leadership of the Socialist youth movement Free German Youth (FDJ). Later, she became a member of the district council and the secretary of “agitprop” (agitation and propaganda) in the Academy of Sciences in the organization. However, so it did not participate in the secular adulthood Jugendweihe ceremony, which was distributed in East Germany, and was confirmed instead. Merkel herself talked about her years FDJ youth movement as a “cultural work.”
Merkel was educated in Templin and at Leipzig University, where he studied physics in the period from 1973 to 1978. As a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the death Moritzbastei, students began a project to create your own club and recreation facilities on campus. This initiative was unprecedented in East Germany during this period, and initially opposed by the University of Leipzig. However, with the support of local leadership SED, the project was allowed to continue. Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. She learned to speak the Russian language, and also won the state for her tongue. Once received his doctorate (Dr. RER. Nat) for his thesis on quantum chemistry, she worked as a researcher.
In 1989, Merkel got involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining a new party, Democratic Awakening. After the first (and only) democratic election of the East German state, she became deputy press secretary of the new interim government prior association under Lothar de Mezieres.
Member of the Bundestag and the Cabinet
At the first general elections since reunification in December 1990 she was elected to the Bundestag from the audience, which includes parts of North-Western Pomerania and Rügen as well as in the city of Stralsund. This left her constituency so far. Her party merged with the West German CDU, and she became the Minister for Women and Youth in the 3-meter room Helmut Kohl. In 1994 she was Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform on which to build his political career. As part of a protected Kohl and his young minister, she refers to as Kolya “Das Mädchen” (“girl”).
When the Kohl government was defeated in 1998 general election, Merkel was named Secretary General of the CDU. In this position, Merkel oversaw a string of Christian Democrats win elections in six of the seven regional elections only in 1999, breaking a SPD-Green coalition in the Bundesrat, the legislative body representing the state. After a party financing scandal that undermines many of the leading figures of the CDU (notably Kohl himself, who refused to disclose the donor DM 2000000 stating that he gave his word of honor, and then party chairman, Wolfgang Schauble, Kohl picked successor who was not a co-op) Merkel criticized her former mentor, Kohl, and advocated for a new beginning for the party without him. She was elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first woman chairman of his party, held on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers because of its proposed identity distinct from the participant, she was selected as lead; Merkel’s Protestant, originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU, the male-dominated, socially conservative party with strong points in the western and southern Germany, and the Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.
After the election of Angela Merkel as leader of the CDU, she enjoyed great popularity among the German population and favored by many Germans to become challenger of Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder in 2002 elections. Nevertheless, she did not receive enough support in her own party, especially its sister party (the Bavarian Christian Social Union or CSU), and later because of political maneuvering CSU leader Edmund Stoiber, whom she eventually lost the privilege of challenging Schröder but he squandered a big lead in opinion polls to lose the election with a minimal edge. After the defeat of Stoiber in 2002, in addition to its role as chairman of the CDU, Angela Merkel became the leader of the conservative opposition in the lower house of German parliament, the Bundestag. Her rival, Friedrich Merz, who held the post of parliamentary leader prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.
Merkel supported substantial reforms in the economic and social system in Germany and is considered more pro-market than her own party (CDU), it advocates changes in German labor law, in particular, the removal of barriers to the dismissal of employees and increase the permissible number of working hours per week , arguing that existing laws of the country less competitive because companies can not easily control labor costs at a time when business is slow.
Merkel was in favor of nuclear energy in Germany will be phased out less quickly than the Schroeder government has been planned.
Merkel was in favor of a strong transatlantic partnership and the German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel expressed support for the U.S. invasion of Iraq, calling it “inevitable” and accused Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder’s anti-Americanism. This has led some critics. To describe it as an American lackey. She criticized the Government’s support for Turkey’s accession to the European Union and advocated a “privileged partnership” instead. At the same time she is seen as in unison with many Germans, rejecting Turkey’s membership in the European Union.
As a female politician from the party center right, and scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some spoke of her as “Iron Lady,” “Iron Girl” and even “Iron Frau” (all hinting at Thatcher, nicknamed the “Iron Lady” Margaret Thatcher also has a degree: the degree of the University of Oxford Chemistry). Political commentators debated the exact extent to which their programs are similar.
In addition to the first female German chancellor and the young German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II and the first with experience in the natural sciences. She studied physics, its predecessors, law, business, history, or were military officers, among others.
Merkel topped Forbes magazine “” The World’s 100 Most Influential Women “in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 .
May 30, 2005, Merkel has won the CDU / CSU candidate for the nominating Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder’s SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with 21 points for the SPD in the national polls, although her personal popularity lagging behind the incumbent. Nevertheless, the CDU / CSU campaign suffered , when Merkel, having made economic competence central platform of the HDZ, confused gross and net income doubled during the debates. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge of the Constitutional Court of Germany’s leading financial experts and politicians, as Minister of Finance.
Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhoff suggested the introduction of flat tax in Germany, again undermining the wide appeal of the Party of Economic Affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This is compounded by Merkel proposing an increase in VAT to reduce Germany’s deficit and to fill the gap of income from the single tax. SPD could increase their support simply a promise not to introduce flat taxes or increase the VAT. Although the situation Merkel recovered after she distanced herself from the proposals Kirchhoff, it is still much less popular than Schröder, and also lead the CDU dropped to 9% on the eve of elections.
September 18, 2005, Merkel, the CDU / CSU and SPD Schroeder went head to head in the national elections, with the CDU / CSU winning 35.3% (27.8% CDU / CSU 7.5%) of the second vote, 34.2% SPD. None of the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU / CSU and the preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, which took place enough votes to form a majority in the Bundestag, and both Schroeder and Merkel claimed victory. Coalition between the CDU / CSU and SPD faced with the problem that both parties have demanded the Chancellor. However, after three weeks of negotiations, both sides reached an agreement that Merkel would be chancellor and SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet. the coalition agreement was approved by both parties at party conferences 14 November 2005. Merkel was elected chancellor of a majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on Nov. 22, 2005, and 51 members of the ruling coalition voted against it.
Reports indicated that the coalition will continue to set policies, some of which differs from the political platform of Merkel as leader of the opposition candidate for chancellor. the intention of the coalition is to reduce public expenditure and increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social contributions and the maximum rate of income tax. Employment protection will no longer cover employees during their first two years, pensions will be frozen and subsidies for first-time home buyers will be scrapped.
Merkel said that the main purpose of her Government would be to reduce unemployment, and that this particular issue on which her government will be judged.
In his first weeks in office, Merkel has visited the French president, Jacques Chirac, EU leaders gathered in Brussels, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer and Prime Minister Tony Blair and President Pohamba of Namibia has received.
September 25, 2007 Chancellor Angela Merkel met with the Dalai Lama for “private and informal talks in Berlin in the Office of the background of protests from China. China canceled after separate talks with German officials, including talks with the Minister of Justice Brigitte Zypries.
Der Spiegel reported that the tension between Chancellor Merkel and U.S. President Barack Obama have been weakened during the meeting the two leaders in June 2009. Commenting on the White House press conference after the meeting, Spiegel said: “Of course, much more protected by the Chancellor could not really keep up with] … the charm offensive Obama, but to reciprocate on” Obama’s good-natured diplomacy “, she gave him to go … Obama’s reference to experience my sister in Heidelberg, implying that she read his autobiography. ”
Policy in the Middle East and Iran
According to the Mehr news agency (as reported in the Mail and Guardian Online and Deutsche Welle citing AFP), in August 2006 Merkel received a letter from Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. According to Merkel stated that letter “unacceptable” criticism of Israel and “cast doubt” the right of a Jewish state to exist, and therefore it would not formally respond to this letter.
On 16 March 2007 Angela Merkel arrived in Israel on the occasion of the 60 th anniversary of the Jewish state. She met at the airport, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, an honor guard, and many of the political and religious leaders, including most of the Israeli Cabinet. Prior to this, U.S. President George W. Bush was only a world leader Olmert gave in honor of greeting at the airport. Merkel has received special permission to speak before the Israeli parliament, which is usually made only heads of state . Merkel made her first visit to the Middle East as president in the office of the Council of Europe in April 2007.
Economic and Financial Policy
In his first address of the Government, on November 30, 2005 Merkel has announced its aim of improving the German economy and reducing unemployment.
After a major fall in world stock markets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to help mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with the crisis, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute € 30 billion, and the Bundesbank € 20 billion in credit line.
On October 4, 2008, Saturday, according to the decision by the Irish government to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, move it strongly criticized Merkel said there were no plans for the German government to do the same. The next day, Merkel said that the government guarantees private savings deposits, in the end. However, two days later, on Oct. 6, 2008, it became clear that the pledge was just a political move that will not be backed up by legislation. Other European governments are finally lifted restrictions or any promised savings in full.
In 1977 he married the former Angela Kasner physics student Ulrich Merkel. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second and current husband, a chemist, a professor of quantum Joachim Sauer, who largely stayed out of media attention. She has no children, but Sauer has two grown sons from a previous marriage.
Merkel also occupy an important place in the German national team matches, as well as an honorary member of the club Energie Cottbus.