The first lessons came from Russia’s 2008 conflict with neighboring Georgia. By 2013, Valery Gerasimov, chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, was laying out the Russian military doctrine for the 21st century with emphasis on “nonmilitary means” (such as political and economic actions) supported by “concealed” military efforts (such as activities undertaken by special operations troops – or cyberspace operatives). Starting in 2014, that integrated approach was used in battle with Ukraine.Sponsored Ads
Attacks directed against the United States and other countries’ governments and businesses have yielded economic and diplomatic secrets that serve to strengthen Russia’s industries and negotiating hand in matters of trade and global politics. Put bluntly, stealing the results of others’ research is faster and cheaper than investing oneself, just as knowing other players’ cards makes deciding a poker player’s next moves easier and more effective.